Community Managed Conservation Areas (CMCA) or Indigenous Peoples and Local Community Protected Areas (ICCAs) is a practice of managing natural resources and the environment by Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities (IPLC). For thousands of years, IPLC has carried out conservation practices in a broad sense, covering landscapes with all their biodiversity and socio-cultural life. This is what makes an area intact, so that in the end the government designates it as a protected area, nature reserve, or national park.
Related to this, WGII (ICCAs Indonesia Working Group) then held a Talkshow activity “Collecting an Inclusive and Equitable Conservation Future in Indonesia” and a Workshop “Consolidation and Formation of a Network of ICCAs Stakeholders in Strengthening the People’s Conservation Movement in Indonesia”. This activity is a continuation of the ToT and Workshop “ICCAs Documentation, Verification and ICCAs Stakeholder Network Consolidation in Strengthening the People’s Conservation Movement in Indonesia” November 28-30 2022 in Bali. Wisnu and Adat Dalem Tamblingan are directly involved in the activity, while Tenganan Pegringsingan, Dukuh Sibetan, and Mujaning Tembeling are expected to be involved online.
Monday, June 12 2023
The activity began with a talk show to find out about the situation of policies, institutions, capacities and strategies for realizing inclusive conservation. One of the policies deemed wrong is the designation of indigenous peoples’ living space as a state forest. Communication between indigenous peoples and policy makers is also a major problem because most of the Indigenous Peoples (IP) have a speech culture and do not have scripts or have a special script, while all state documents are written in Latin script and in Indonesian.
- Directorate General of Culture (Director of Belief in God and IP)
Noer Fauzi Rachman as the moderator stated that the extraordinary biodiversity is protected by the IP, but is not considered by many parties, especially policy makers. How does the Directorate General of Culture manage biodiversity and culture against other government agencies? The Directorate General of Culture has seven strategic agendas in the Cultural Strategy, where agenda no. 5 is to promote a culture that protects biodiversity and ecosystems. There are ten objects for the promotion of culture, namely oral tradition, manuscripts, customs, folk games, traditional sports, traditional knowledge, traditional technology, art, language and rites. Actions taken against objects of cultural advancement are inventory, security, maintenance, and rescue. One of the actions that have been carried out is through local wisdom field schools in 14 communities to create inclusive conservation. Thus, the identification of MHA for customary forest conservation is an important matter, especially in relation to Social Forestry.
The moderator said that the government has a national strategy for biodiversity management and agreed to an International Agreement that by 2030, 30% of Indonesia’s territory will be protected areas. How to respond to agreements between Indigenous Peoples and their ancestors who have lived in areas designated by the state as conservation areas. Bappenas said the government had signed the 1993 Biodiversity Management Agreement and had an IBSAP Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. One of the targets is that 30% of the global area must be protected/conserved. Communication with local communities in collaboration with the Indonesian Burung Foundation and one of its needs is to collect data on conservation areas, including those being conserved by local communities.
- Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (Directorate of Coastal and Small Islands Empowerment)
KKP already has working tools in order to adapt ministry work with indigenous peoples management practices. How can the KKP protect what already exists and fulfill the needs/rights of Indigenous Peoples? KKP stated that the use of sea space must be in accordance with its designation. The Job Creation Law No 6/2023 states that there must be a permit for the utilization of sea space, but an exception is made for IPLC (Indigenous People and Local Communities) which have been recognized by the Regent/Mayor and have managed areas in the waters. KKP protects IPLC by determining the existence of IPLC, there is also no cost involved in determining it. Indigenous Peoples certainly carry out conservation, but conservation is not necessarily carried out by Indigenous Peoples. However, the core zone of the conservation area cannot be contested, including by Indigenous Peoples.
The presentations of the three informants were then responded to by the appointed MA representatives, namely:
- Chairman of the IP Communication Forum from 13 major customary territories in Kalimantan. In 1980 a Nature Reserve Decree was issued, then in 1994 it became the Kayam Mentaram National Park. Customary territories are managed according to custom with their respective designations, including sacred areas that may not be entered. There has been an agreement on management cooperation with the government, but since 2017 there has been no clear role and no guarantee of legality. National Parks still belong to IPs as conservation actors, so they must be recognized as equal partners. The IP will continue to protect the forest according to its designation because the descendants will return there and depend on the forest. If IP are not involved, the forest will be damaged.
- Kahedupa Toudani Forum, Wakatobi. IP as the owner of the territory, but for access must go through a cooperation agreement. National Parks are established before IP are recognized. Even though the designation as a National Park was carried out because there is a good ecosystem, which means that there were already IPs who took care of it before. IP traditional games are also always related to the season (eg bamboo games are played during the bamboo season if the bamboo is old).
- IP Dalem Tamblingan, Bali. Conservation is a practice of IP. Civilization comes from the desire to survive, then occupy the landscape as a source of life, so that it will remain protected. Conservation practices are carried out naturally as an effort to survive and for welfare. Sacred areas as conservation areas will not be tampered with. In general, conservation carried out by IP is integrated from upstream to downstream, for example through rituals. Conservation is a practice, not a theory. Thus, the conservation carried out by IP is integrated into the landscape and behavior. IP as part of nature, not the ruler of nature.
- IP Ngatatoro, Sulawesi. Forest as life. Wanankiki means the core zone that should not be disturbed. There are many customary rules in forest management for sustainability. Ngattori also has a traditional school related to good relations with nature and fellow humans. So far, the application for land area has not been fulfilled. IP owns 18,000 ha of customary forest, requested 9,000 ha, but was only given 1,700 ha. Why should customary forests be requested, even though the IP has always conserved the forests they own.
Talking with IP always makes me moved. Responses from other participants were:
- The government teaches the science of leaving, while traditional schools teach the science of staying.
- Currently Haruku is experiencing a fish crisis, even though marine management is aimed at the sustainability of people’s lives. Many traditional institutions are in suspended animation, even exploiting what has been maintained. There is a permit issued to carry out bombing fishing. In fact, every country has financial and customary law.
- The government is like a crushing machine, one of which is the case of dredging the sea in North Maluku. Maluku and North Maluku waters have been destroyed because of the ministries of LHK and ESDM.
- National identity is Bhinneka Tunggal Ika. The state must begin to realize, improve itself, and reconcile with the IP, especially in Papua. The people do not exist because of the state, while the state exists because of the people. The state should only have management rights, while property rights remain with the people.
- Customary forest is included as state forest in Lombok’s new RTRW, different from the old RTRW. Management rights are not specified, IP assets are included as regional assets. Currently there is a movement against the cable train and the development of small Singapore.
- The determination of the conservation area did not involve the community, it happened in Kampar-Riau.
Tuesday, June 13 2023
As already mentioned, this activity is a continuation of the workshop conducted in Bali, which produced the CMCA Stakeholder Network Work Map document in Indonesia. Today, participants were divided into two groups based on interest to discuss Institutions and the 5 Year Work Plan. In general, the results of the discussion are:
- Agreement to establish a network with the name CMCA Network of Rights Holders in Indonesia. Conservation areas are defined as landscapes that include biodiversity and socio-cultural diversity of the people. So, conservation is interpreted and aimed at conserving diversity. The CMCA Rights Holder Network consists of 6 regions, namely Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Jabalnusra, Maluku, and Papua. Nyoman Werdiasa from Tamblingan was appointed as CMCA Jabalnusra Dynamics.
- Activity plans are prepared up to 2027, covering institutional formation and member consolidation, capacity building and expansion of documentation, policy advocacy and conservation movements. The closest advocacy activity that will be carried out is the declaration and launch of the CMCA Rights Holder Network at the Tenurial Conference in August 2023.