The development of tourism to Nusa Penida has grown rapidly since 2015, where speed boats began to speed up sea transportation to / from Nusa Penida. Previously, to go to Nusa Penida, people using a large passenger boat or commonly called “jangolan” with a capacity of up to 50 people only served 1 time crossing to / to Nusa Penida, nowadays almost every hour the fast boat can be access by tourists / local communities.
According to data from the marine patrol UPT Water Conservation Area (2017 data), at least 3,000 tourists per day visit Nusa Penida Island through the community port gate in Banjar Nyuh, Ped Village. Since the 2015 Nusa Penida Festival has aroused the desire of tourists to visit the coral island which has an area of 192.72 km2.
Tourism has two different sides, namely the good side that provides a significant economic impact on the local community / investors and the bad side of the carrying capacity of the island which is inhabited by 215,852 people plus the number of tourists and workers from overland in Nusa Penida.
Based on the results of a qualitative survey and interviews with 22 resource persons in Banjar Nyuh Kukuh conducted by volunteers of the Wisnu Foundation – Abdul Fikri Angga Reksa students from Bonn University and United Nations University (UNU-EHS):
The good side:
- An increase in the people’s economy
- Declining unemployment
- Women empowerment
- Number of initiatives in the environmental field (clean and sustainable business group)
- Number of plastic waste generation / non-degradable waste
- Rapid land use change
- Loss of livelihood of seaweed farmers
- Water sources limitations
- Pontoon and illegal fast boat
First pict: Br. Nyuh in 2015, second pict: Br. Nyuh in 2018
Serious impacts must be taken immediately to maintain the carrying capacity and ecological practices on a large scale to compensate for the insistence on the use of limited natural resources. The dependence of local people on the island of Bali is getting higher, dependence on drinking water, food, ceremonial materials, tourist support products, etc.
Potential recommendations that need to be developed in Nusa Penida, such as:
- Implementation of the Banjar scale integrated waste management technology program, if each person produces 1 kg of waste per day, there will be around 219 tons of garbage per day on this island or the equivalent of 36 medium dump trucks
- Waste management education and systems (including “awig-awig” or local rules)
- Renewable power plants such as solar, biogas, ocean currents or wind, because electricity from solar fuel currently produces 74.07 tons / TJ of energy or equivalent to 0.267 kgCO2 / kWh
- Strengthen the movement of young people who care about the environment
- Increase the application of eco-tourism areas that are concerned with the local socio-economic environment
- Restricting the number of tourists in water conservation areas
- Stricter law enforcement